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Oct 23

Giri┼čimcilik-Entrepreneurship

San─▒r─▒m yapt─▒─č─▒m k─▒sa ara┼čt─▒rmalar i├žerisinde zevkle ve ilgiyle ├žal─▒┼čt─▒─č─▒m konulardan biriydi bu. Giri┼čimcilik ve T├╝rkiye!

A├ž─▒k konu┼čmak gerekirse, “giri┼čimcilik” ba┼čl─▒─č─▒ alt─▒nda ve “giri┼čimci” s─▒fat─▒yla T├╝rkiye’de yap─▒lan ├žal─▒┼čmalar─▒n b├╝y├╝k bir b├Âl├╝m├╝n├╝n “sabun k├Âp├╝─č├╝” niteli─činde oldu─ču d├╝┼č├╝n├╝yorum. Haz─▒rlamam gereken giri┼čimcili─čin ├╝lkenize, ├╝lkenizin ekonomisine etkisi konulu ara┼čt─▒rma ├Âdevim ile ilgili kaynak ararken Yeditepe ├ťniversitesi’nde bu konuda bir ara┼čt─▒rma yapm─▒┼č olan akademisyenlerden birinin raporuna ula┼čt─▒m. Bu raporu okuduktan sonra her┼čeyin bize lanse edildi─či gibi “reel” olmad─▒─č─▒n─▒ anlad─▒m.

Herkes giri┼čimci oldu─čunu iddia ederken bu durumun “geli┼čmekte olan ├╝lkelerde” olduk├ža farkl─▒ bir boyutta oldu─čunu d├╝┼č├╝n├╝yorum. Yani e─čer geli┼čmekte olan bir ├╝lkede ya┼č─▒yorsan─▒z ve parlak bir fikriniz varsa bu fikri hayata ge├žirdi─činiz zaman sermayenizi nas─▒l elde etti─činiz, fikrinizin ne gibi olu┼čumlardan “esinlenerek” ortaya ├ž─▒kt─▒─č─▒ ├žok ├Ânemli. Bu konuda kad─▒nlar─▒n da “giri┼čimci” s─▒fat─▒n─▒ ta┼č─▒y─▒p ta┼č─▒mad─▒─č─▒ da s├Âz konusu ├╝lkenin giri┼čimcilik g├╝ndemine ve ge├žmi┼čine farkl─▒ bir boyut kazand─▒r─▒yor.

Ara┼čt─▒rmam─▒n i├žeri─čine ingilizce olarak a┼ča─č─▒dan ula┼čabilirsiniz.

>What impact does entrepreneurship have on your local, state (or province), and national economies? Use data to back up your arguments.


As a Turkish citizen, I know that Turkey has fast developing process. Because of many entrepreneurship activities, developing process is getting stronger and one of the key findings is that the early-stage entrepreneurial activities in Turkey is much lower than those that take place in other developing countries, whereas, the number of established business entrepreneurs are relatively higher in Turkey. Like many middle east countires, female participation in work force in Turkey is really low. But this participation ratios are getting higher with respect to entrepreneurship activities. I will give datas like TEA index, SME index, NEA index, NBO index, NE & OE index to reflect the impact of entrepreneurship activities to Turkey, as an example of developing country.

Innovative/creative ideas, the power of R&D, government policies, financial supports, education, rapid market changes, entrepreneurship capacity, entry barriers to the industry are the basic topics for being a leader about raising high level of entrepreneurships. These topics are getting stronger in Turkey but before giving information about this topics I will give an example about Turkish peopleÔÇÖs understanding about entrepreneurship. With a random sampling method called CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview), researchers make an observation in 16,000 individuals. Only 2416 individuals responded and considered to be a representative sample size. Participants ranged in age from 18-64, and lived in 19 cities throughtout Turkey. Thus, a standard questionnaire was asked to 2416 individuals and among those 418 respoondents fit the definition of an entrepreneur.
Total Entrepreneurial Activity Turkey Developing Countries
TEA index 6.07 14.64
NEA index 2.2 7.70
NBO index 4.01 7.68
EBO index 11.5 9.93
Ratio of TEA index to EBO index 0.53 0.67
NE index 1.79 4.39
OE index 3.7 9.97

TEA index: early stage entrepreneursh,p activities index, NEA index: Nascent entrepreneurial activities index, NBO index: New business owners index, EBO index: established business owners index, OE index: Opportunity entrepreneurs index, NE index: Necessity entrepreneurs
According to table as we can determine that, TurkeyÔÇÖs TEA, NEA, NBO indexes are lower than developing countriesÔÇÖ. But TurkeyÔÇÖs EBO index is higher than others. As developing countries I mean India, Jamaica, Indonesia, Philippines, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, Thailand, Mexico, Uruguay, Malaysia, South Africa and Argentina. The average EBO index of Turkey (11.5%) is higher than that of the developing countries (9.93%). But why TurkeyÔÇÖs EBO index is higher than others? One reason is that Turkish government attention and support have been always more favourable to large firms than small firms. Effectiveness of a countryÔÇÖs economy can be determine by EBO index which actually shows enterpreneurial dynamism in the economy. So, Turkey has an effective economy.

Entrepreneurship has two types: opportunity entrepreneurs and necessity entrepreneurs. Opportunity entrepreneurs are taking advantage of a business opportunity but necessity entreprenurs are people who have no better options for work. According to average of the OE index Turkey (3.7 %) is 13th out of 14 developing countries. The average NE index is 1.8% that places Turkey 12th among developing countries. The ratio of OE to NE is lower than the average of the developing countries, implying that relatively more Turkish entrepreneurs have taken the entrepreneurial route out of necessity.
Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions Turkey Developing Countries
Financial support 1.76 2.40
Government regulation policy 1.89 2.02
R&D transfer 2.14 2.16
Education & Training 2.16 1.92
Fast market changes 3.4 2.86
Population composition 2.9 3.21
National culture 2.78 2.80
High growth firms 2.53 2.78
Intellectual property rights 2.4 2.47

For starting a business, entrepreneurs or ordinary people have to pass many regulations and try to arrange their cashflows, find an financial support or hire educated people to grow the firm fastly. As you can see from the table in many developing countries has high level of government support and checking system. TurkeyÔÇÖs economy is effecting from this regulaitons and policies positively. Entrepreneurs are able to set up a business easily.
GovernmentÔÇÖs basic problem is having a budget deficit. Usually number of imported goods exceeds exports and this create a deficit in countries budget. The majority of the new firms have no exports but 10% already have very significant exports with more than 75% of their customers in export markets. Entrepreneurs in Turkey are more export oriented than entrepreneurs in other developing countries. This means that high levels of export will reduce the gap between imports. GovernmentÔÇÖs budget deficit will be always less and GDP (gross domestic product) will be on its best level.

Entrepreneurs donÔÇÖt have to be men. Women are also can be entrepreneur and this will expand countryÔÇÖs economy fastly. Turkey is developing Middle East Country and women did not have any chance to join the work force easily. But in India, Prof. Mohammed Yunus made a loan for 45 poor women to create their business. This manner established Grameen Mikro credit system. Starting from India, in Turkey there were women got benefit from this credit system and start many businesses as ÔÇťan woman entrepreneurÔÇŁ! They start to work instead of being non-productive house wifes and contribute the national economy. Actually in this case, Mr. Mohammed Yunus made an entrepreneurial manner and create benefical cycle to make countries economy better. After all Turkey gets benefits of this enterprise.

References
ÔÇó Autio, E., 2005, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2005 Report on High-Expectation Entrepreneurship, London Business School and Babson College (from web)
ÔÇó Microcredit/ http://www.microcreditsummit.org/
ÔÇó Assistant Professor Esra Karadeniz, Department of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yeditepe University Entrepreneurship report
ÔÇó Long,W., 1983 ÔÇťThe meaning of entrepreneurshipÔÇŁ American Journal of Small Business (from web)