Be sensitive about your BUDGET!

Studying finance and economics, makes me excited and curious about theories, definitions, calculations etc.. As a student I have to know every single point about this science but instead of using them, just knowing how they are working in markets do not make sense for me. There is a really successful American girl blogging approximately every day in her web page called My Pennies My thoughts. I’m reading her posts and she is forcing me about to observe my budget and use my money “logically”. We need to know how much are we spending entire year. I’m not independent about money because still I’m living with my parents and I don’t have any idea about house expenses but she KNOWS them! I strongly recommend you to read her blog posts and “just like me” you should start to determine your cash flows every single day. Also you can use personal finance packages to observe your spendings and expenses.

Issuing New Security


Equity is sold to all interested investors in a cash offer. If the cash offer is a public one, banks are usually involved. Banks are financial intermediaries that perform a wide variety of services. In addition to taking deposits and making loans, they also aid in the sale of securities, facilitate mergers and other corporate reorganizations, act as brokers to both individual and institutional clients, and trade for their own accounts. Until late 2008 much of this activity was undertaken by investment banks. However, the financial crisis at the time resulted in investment banks either disappearing entirely or changing into normal banks.

These kind of banks are issuing securities in three ways.

1.Firm Commitment
2.Best efforts cash offer
3.Dutch auction

What is firm commitment?

A company negotiates an agreement with a bank to underwrite and distribute the new shares. A specified number of shares are bought by underwriters and sold at higher price.

What is best efforts cash offer?

Company has underwriters sell as many of the new shares as possible at the agreed-upon price. There is no guarantee concerning how much cash will be raised. Some best-efforts offerings do not use an underwriter.

What is dutch auction?

Company has underwriters auction shares to determine the highest offer price obtainable for a given number of shares to be sold.

A case study about hedging

A spanish professional football team plans to play an exhibition game in the United Kingdom next year. Assume that all expenses will be paid by the British government, and that the team will receive a check for £1million. The team anticipates that the pound will depreciate substantially by the scheduled date of the game. In addition, the football authorities must approve the deal, and approval will not occur for 3 months. How can the team hedge its position? What is there to lose by waiting three months to see if the exhibition game is approved before hedging?

The team could purchase put options on pounds in order to lock in the amount at which it could convert the 1 million pounds to dollars. The expiration date of the put option should correspond to the date in which the team would receive the 1 million pounds. If the deal is not approved, the team could let the put options expire.
If the team waits three months, option prices will have changed by then. If the pound has depreciated over this three-months period, put option with the same exercise price would command higher premiums. Therefore, the team may wish to purchase put options immediately. The team could also consider selling future contracts on pounds, but it would be obligated to exchange pounds for dollars in the future, even if the deal is not approved.

An Amazing Virtual Book “Store” !

To be honest, I can’t get used to reading books from electronic devices, such as KINDLE! You may think that I’m a “cave man” but it’s my personality.. Touching book’s every single point, turning pages and writing something on it makes me happy! However I found a web page where include many FREE books! They are free even you can listen them during your vacation!

I strongly recommend you Adam Smith’s amazing book “THE WEALTH OF NATIONS!”

Click here please :)

A French Multinational Vehicle Company: RENAULT

CHANNELS OF RENAULT:

By using direct channels, products and goods are sold directly to the customers and this reduce costs of other advertising and agency expenditures. Renault S.A. as a French multinational vehicle manufacturer company, uses mostly it’s direct channels more efficiently to reach customers and obviously they use this channel because of their cost reduction strategy. Renault’s efficient direct channel is company’s web page.

Considering Zero emission cars Renault tries to deliver company’s value proposition to customers by advertising and announcing campaigns from it’s direct channel. Customers get the opportunity to create their hybrid car by using direct channel and this give them a chance to differentiate products and suit their car to their personality. As a customer, you can choose technical specification, communication & navigation tools, in-car entertainment, instruments & controls, security equipment, heating & ventilation, seating & trim, driving safety and exterior equipment. These features are for individual buyers. But if the customer is business purchaser, it can reserve a Renault model with direct channel. The opportunity to reserve online Renault ZOE, provided you are a business purchaser with a fleet of less than 25 vehicles or a private retail purchaser.

Why does Renault choose to reinforce direct channels, especially web page?

1. Cost reduction strategy is the main reason about choosing web page as a powerful direct channel.
2. Auto industry is an oligopoly and in this case there are few firms and too much differentiation between brands. Renault gives it’s customer an opportunity to differentiate hybrid cars by using it’s web page. This is the cheapest and easy way to compete with other auto companies.

As Michael Porter, Harvard Business School Proffesor stated in it’s Five Forces of Competitive Positioning Model, buyers power will be higher if, they can easily switch to other providers so the provider needs to create a high quality service at a good price. Considering this model, Renault survive with competition and attract it’s customer segment with company’s direct channel.

Porter’s five forces model of competition specify determinants of buyers power like followings;

1. Product differentiation
2. Buyers’ ability to use multiple sources

As a secondary item, customers reach Renault hybrid cars by indirect channels, such as partnerships.
In 2008 Renault-Nissan signed a deal about mass-production of electric cars for an initiative in Israel with Better Place, a US company developing new non-petroleum based transport infrastructure. Renault aimed a mass market about 10,000 to 20,000 cars a year in Israel. Renault would also develop exchangeable batteries for the project.
Renault also collaborated with Better Place to produce a network of all-electric vehicles and thousands of charging stations in Denmark. The Renault Fluence Z.E., was selected for the Israel project, being the first zero-emission vehicle with a switchable battery, with trials in 2010 undertaken with the Renault Laguna.
The Renault-Nissan Alliance has signed more than 100 partnerships aimed at preparing markets and infrastructures for the mass production of electric vehicles. Renault-Nissan Alliance has worked closely on a number of projects aimed at evaluating full-scale mobility systems. To show regard to hybrid car industry, Renault can attract customers by creating easy access to battery charging facilities. Using their indirect channels, partnerships, customers can easily charge their electric cars’ batteries in two ways: The Single Wall-Box (home charging solution), charging solutions at your workplace, or in public areas like supermarket car parks and by using British Gas(for United Kingdom). British Gas can provide the fastest, safest and most convenient charging options for electric vehicles (considering United Kingdom). With respect to power of brand and partnership aggreements, Renault is the leader comparing with charging battery services. Renault tries to make aggreements with powerful energy providers to give the efficient and fast battery charging service for it’s customers. They have pilot projects aimed at evaluating full-scale mobility systems and other examples are included as followings:

The SAVE Project (Seine Aval Véhicules Electrique) in association with EDF, Scneider Electric and other partners in France’s Yvelines department.
• A scheme with German energy provider RWE (North Rhine- Westphalie).
• Another scheme with Italian energy provider A2A (Lombardy).
• The VERT Project on the French-administrated Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) which sets out to look at the special case of island communities.
• The Brisith energy providing company called British Gas. A number of companies are starting to build the infrastructure of charging points around the UK and the government has made £30M available through “Plugged-In Places”

Companies which are stated above represent the success of Renault’s indirect channels, in other words partnership aggreements.

Delivering Value Proposition Attaching Direct Channels with Campaigns! Renault gives it’s cutomers a chance for having four year:

1. Warranty: Your vehicle is covered by a warranty package for you to 48 months.
2. Servicing: Free servicing during your first four years of ownership, or your first 48,000 miles, whichever comes first.
3. Roadside: 24/7 roadside assistance in partnership with the AA.
4. Finance Available: If you want to purchase your car with finance, four year finance deals are available.

This four steps include technical and financial purposes. Creating campaigns and introducing them by using customers
social media accounts & Renault’s web pages are ways of Renault’s promoting these purposes to customer. For instance Renault promoting 4+ package service to it’s customers by a slogan which is called “A lot can happen in four years!” and you can use a Facebook application to see what had change so in your life during last 4 years. This application do not give a technical information for customers but they can be aware of Renault’s value proposition by using it.

COST STRUCTURE :

Expenses that a firm must take into account when manufacturing a product or providing a service is called cost structure. Types of cost structures include transaction costs, sunk costs, marginal costs and fixed costs. The cost structure of the firm is the ratio of fixed costs and variable costs. Following table represents cost structure of producing a hybrid car. The cost structure of the industry, where fixed costs are a high precentage of costs, the profits will be very dependable on volume. In oligopolistic competition, one of Renault’s fixed cost is $99,528,504.2 (€74,64637815). Comparing with other hybrid car producers Renault reduce it costs by merging with Mécanique Aviation Traction or Matra. Matra (Mécanique Aviation TRAction) is a French company who covers a wide range of activities mainly related to automobile. Matra decrease it’s production costs by using qualify steel and after Renault and Matra merged, Renault decrease it’s production costs by using the steel the way Matra used. This situation acceptable also for hybrid car production period. This kind of cheap materials decrease Renault’s costs. Matra used SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) as an alternative to stamped steel used in the automobile industry. It resulted in low production costs. For example, in 1985 Matra sale price to Renault for the “Espace” was about 12,109 euros (sales amount of 170 M euros for 14,039 units). This transfer price allowed Renault to have a comfortable margin. In 1994, the transfer price to Renault was 13,980 euros and the Minivan was delivered to the final customer at an average retail price of 26,000 euros (tax and dealer margin included).

Although, the advantage of Renault decreased once the Peugeot-FIAT alliance started. Only two years after their launching, Peugeot-FIAT minivans outpaced Renault “Espace” in annual registrations. From 64000 units sold in 1994, the “Espace” registrations fall to 35 000 units in two years. This 1996 year was the worst in sales and saw the break by Renault of their collaboration with Matra.

Sale Price Per Car (MSRP) $22,195.00
Profit Margin Per Capita 6.64%
VC%75.0 Variable Cost Per Car $15,541.55
FC%25.0 Fixed Cost Per Car $5,180.52
Priuses Sold 19,156
Total Fixed Costs $99,528,504.2

Sales Price Per Car (MSRP) $22,195.00
Profit Margin Per Car 0.00%
Total Cost Per Car $22,195.00
Variable Costs Per Car $15,541.55
Fixed Costs Per Car $6,653.45

Total Fixed Costs/Fixed Costs Per Car=14,950

Nissan and Renault share a common purchasing agency for volume synergy. The Japanese carmaker aims to reach more than 50 percent of common components with Renault, compared with the current 7 percent, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Nissan’s senior vice president in charge of purchasing, said at a briefing in Yokohama. The executive didn’t give a timeframe to reach the target.

Nissan is expanding localized production overseas and shifting domestic output to Kyushu in southern Japan to take advantage of lower local labor cost and proximity to South Korean suppliers, Yamauchi said. This comes as the company targets lowering total costs by 5 percent each year through March 2017

Renault SA (RNO) and Nissan Motor Co. (7201) said they aim to double annual cost savings from their alliance within four years, while denying a Reuters report that they’re reviewing their cross-shareholdings.

The Success of ZOE Z.E. Model:
Before the Renault Zoe rolls into European showrooms next spring with a promise of affordable electric mobility, the super-mini car cruised to a fuel-economy victory in the English countryside.
The Zoe emerged as top mass-production vehicle Saturday in the Royal Automobile Club’s (RAC) Future Car Challenge, achieving the equivalent of 163.3 miles per gallon (69.4 kilometers per liter) in the Brighton-to-London road rally.
It is fitting that the race ended at Regent Street, one of London’s premier shopping thoroughfares, crammed with big-name brands that daily beckon hundreds of thousands of shoppers. French automaker Renault, which has a13-year-old alliance with Japan’s Nissan, aims to entice consumers to the world of electric vehicles with the Zoe. (Related: “Eleven Electric Vehicles Charge Ahead, Amid Obstacles”) The super-mini’s base price will be roughly half that of Nissan’s critically acclaimed but slow-selling Leaf. Although buyers will have to pay separately for the battery, the Zoe’s overall cost will be less than that of most other EVs. Renault hopes that will be a breakthrough for the nascent electric drive business. Renault and Nissan have pledged a $5 billion investment in battery-electric vehicle development, and they have made a commitment to produce cars for people “who want to liberate themselves from fossil fuels.” (Related: “Pictures: A Rare Look Inside Carmakers’ Drive for 55 MPG”)

REVENUE STREAMS:

A revenue stream is a method that a company, organization, or individual uses to collect money—often automated—from users of their product or service. In essence, it is a method of earning money and a way to protect it. Renault earned high amount of money from Europe before 2011, before Eurozone crisis. Renault exporting cars to Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Belgium, Poland, Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, China, India, Iran, South Korea etc. But especially because of the Eurozone crisis Renault lost power in Europe and as you can see from the chart above, in 2011 Renault got most of money from Europe but during the first quarter of 2012 calendar year, with respect the crisis, it’s earning decline fastly. Renault’s revenue stream slow down starting from 2011 first quarter.
Region H1 2012 H1 2011 Year 2011
Europe 12,876 14,283 27,408
Americas 2,985 2,292 5,21
Asia-Pacific and China 1,859 1,825 4,575
Euromed*-Africa 2,118 1,921 3,755
Eurasia 1,097 0,78 1,68
Total Revenues 20,935 21,101 42,628

France 5,809 6,406 12,119
* The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (or Barcelona Process) started in 1995 with the Barcelona Euro-Mediterranean Conference. The European Union stated the intention of this “partnership” is “to strengthen its relations with the countries in the Mashriq and Maghreb regions”. The partnership laid the foundations for what came to be the Union for the Mediterranean, an institution building on, but not replacing, the EuroMed Partnership.

Remember that hybrid sales, gas prices and oil prices are correlated.
Correlation Value
Gas vs. Oil 0.8984
Oil vs. Hybrid Sales 0.8371
Gas vs. Hybrid Sales 0.8624
Because of increasing oil prices, consumers try to avoid purchasing oil based products. In this case, companies who produce hybrid cars, will increase their revenue streams because of consumers low demand for oil based automobiles. Because of the positive correlation between oil prices and hybrid sales, Renault will increase revenue streams by selling hybrid cars. High correlation allows car companies to estimate number of hybrid cars to be sold based on gas prices. The table below and correlation value that stated before, during 2004, increasing oil prices give chance to hybrid car producers increase their revenue.

Renault’s sales volume dropped 18% in Europe in a market that shrank 9.3%, reflecting the company’s large exposure to falling demand in southern Europe. But Renault said 55% of sales were outside Europe, where revenue per vehicle sold is now close to its European levels.
Renault hasn’t been able to escape the price war in Europe as car makers struggle to preserve market share and keep chronically underused assembly lines moving by slashing sticker prices in the companies’ showrooms.
Sales of the Clio, a subcompact hatchback that is one of the mainstays of the company’s product catalog, have sagged pending the arrival of a new generation model in Renault showrooms this month. The company has no significant premium-car sales unlike Volkswagen AG, VOW.XE +1.66% the German auto maker that has so far weathered the storm in Europe well.
But Renault is clearly better-placed than some of its mass-market rivals due to its wide range of popular low-price and high-margin vehicles that is proving to be a solid antidote for households seeking to preserve their spending power without sacrificing the freedom that comes with owning a car. Renault sold 14,000 more entry level vehicles from its Dacia unit world-wide in the third quarter from a year ago compared with a 51,000 decline for the rest of the group.

Renault can also fall back on its decade-old alliance with Japan’s Nissan. The companies aim to nearly double annual efficiency savings stemming from their long-running alliance to €4 billion in 2016 from this year’s expected level.

Neden Sponsor Olunur?

Neden şirketler ve uluslararası firmalar büyük organizasyonlara, çeşitli oluşumlara sponsor olurlar?

Spor salonlarında yada stadyumlarda, müzelerde ve genellikle sporcuların, ünlü kimselerin giyiminde pahalı markaların izlerine rastlanır. Spor salonlarının isminin yanında bir markanın adı yazılıyken, kimi şampiyonaların adı bir markanın ismiyle anılır. Bu gibi ayrıntıların farkına vardığınız zaman durumu irdelemesek de aslındatüm bu “ayrıntıların” ardında bir pazarlama staretiji yatmaktadır.

Coca-cola, Total Company, Türk Telekom, Lacoste, Beko gibi büyük ve güçlü kuruluşların ismini kişisel ihtiyaçlarımızı karşıladığımız (giyim, beslenme, ısınma vs.) anlar dışında da duyabiliyoruz. Örneğin İstanbul’da, 2011 yılında sporseverlerle buluşturulan ,Galatasaray Spor Kulübü’nün stadyumu olan “Türk Telekom Arena” nın isminin içerisindeki pazarlama stratejisinin farkında mıyız? Gün içerisinde defalarca tekrarlanan bu stadyumun ismi aynı zamanda telekomünikasyon şirketi olan Türk Telekom’un da bu durumdan kazançlı çıkmasını sağlıyor.

1877’den bugüne İngiltere’nin başkenti Londra’da yer alan Wimbledon isimli bölgede gerçekleştirilen tenis turnuvalarında, saha kenarında ve sporcuların üzerinde görmeye alışık olduğumuz bir marka var. René LaCoste’un kurucusu olduğu Fransız giyim markası LaCoste ününü tenis turnuvalarında duyurmaya hala devam ediyor.

Fransa’da yer alan dünyaca ünlü Versay şatosu cam galerisinin (Galerie De Glaces Versaille)girişinde de yine uluslararası tanınmış olan Amerikan petrol şirketi Total Company’nin amblemini görmek mümkün. Petrol şirketi Total’in bir cam galerisinin yenilenmesine destek vermesi tahmin edileceği gibi bir pazarlama stratejisinden ibaret.
Coca-cola & Beko’nun da ismini spor karşılaşmaları, sosyal sorumluluk çalışmaları, sürdürülebilirlik projelerinde pazarlama stratejisi bilincini göz önünde bulundurarak görebilmek mümkün.

Peki bu şirketler bu kadar bilinirken ve fazla reklama gerek duymadan artık arz-talep dengesini tutturmuşken neden çeşitli oluşumların sponsorluk görevini üstleniyorlar?

Evet ortada bir pazarlama stratejisi olduğu açık ancak bu durumun bir de yatırım penceresinden görüntüsü var. Yatırımcılar şirket hisselerinin ne kadar güvenilir, ne oranda riskli olduğunu anlamak için söz konusu şirketin bağlı bulunduğu ülkenin borsasına göz atarlar. Aracı kurumlar tarafından da gözler önüne serilebilen risk oranları yatırımcının söz konusu şirketlere olan talebini belirler. Eğer bir şirket, örneğin Coca-Cola, 2012 Londra Olimpiyatlarına sponsor oluyorsa ve bu büyük organizasyonun masraflarının büyük bir bölümünü üstleniyorsa bunun altında yatırımcıya “biz hala güçlüyüz ve birikimimizle spor aktivitelerine büyük oranda destek de olabiliyoruz. Bize güvenin ve paranızı bize yatırın!” mesajını verme arzusu yatıyor demektir.

Ancak söz konusu durumda şirketlerin hem yatırımcı bazlı hem de tüketici bazlı düşünmesi gerekiyor. Yapılan araştırmalar, üniversite ekonomistlerinin yayımladığı bazı raporlar gösteriyor ki :

1. Tüketiciler, bazı sponsorlukları saçma bulup o üründen vazgeçebiliyor. Kriz zamanı yapılan bir araştırmaya göre spor müsabakalarına büyük oranda yatırım yapan şirketler, tüketicide negatif bir izlenim bırakıyor.

2. Yatırımcılar ve tüketiciler sanat alanında sponsorluk bazında öne çıkan şirketlere daha çok güveniyor! Sosyal alanlara katkı sağlayan, kültürel etkinlikleri destekleyen şirketlerin sponsorluk girişimleri pozitif etki yaratırken söz konusu şirketin ününün de zedelenmemesine olanak veriyor.

Personal Finance Packages

Research the software packages available to help entrepreneurs with the financials for a business plan. Which do you believe is the best? Why?

Present value of a firm, can attract investors if it’s have high value and a good reputation. All the time, financial managers of white shoe or new firms try to maximize profits along the company to attract investors and create consistent cash flows for the firm. The present value of a firm canbe determine by observing it’s cashflows and if we see “mismatching” between cash inflows and cash outflows, it definitely create short term financial “disaster” for the company.

To avoid our businesses from this kind of failure at the begining of a business we have to examine our financial anticipations, needs and than make decisions with considering our current situation. Starting a new business can make us excited about our new and brilliant idea. We try to create the best management & organizational plan, determining the customer segments make us crazy about the business but we cannot examine easily our economic situation and after starting a business our cash flows create deficits. To preserve our companies’ and start-up businesses we can use computer based systems and perfect softwares.

Financial software packages are display current economic situation of a business and rescue investors and most of all entrepreneurs from wrong decisions. There are too many financial packages that we can benefit from them today such as QuickBooks, Microsoft Office Small Business Accounting, Quicken Home and Business,Epicor, Oracle, Lawson, Infor, Exact Software, iCash, Fortora Fresh Finance, YNAB Pro, AceMoney…

As I stated before, for the purposes of having a healthy business plan we have to consider our financial statements. As an individual, every single person has to broadly focus on his/her expenditures and budget. For this kind of awereness, there are “personal finance software packages” and I stated their names above the page for instance: Quicken Personal Finance, iCash, Fortora Fresh Finance, YNAB Pro, AceMoney.

With a financial software we have to do our online banking transactions and investments (like purchasing stocks/bonds), preparing our plans and reports etc. For personal bases we have to do those transactions with softwares to avoid our financial transactions any lose. As an entrepreneur, instead of paying to much money to an accountant who is using financial software packages to do our businesses calculations, we can use those financial programs to determine our expenditures and make profit by investing, reporting and planning.

Having a healthy cash flow means that do not having a deficit between our actual cash receipts and our cash payments. For the purpose of having a stable cash flow or cash flow with a surplus we can use those financial packages as I stated before.

Considering the ratings in softwares we can determine that, Quicken Personal
Finance is very popular among the financial environment.

Bringing whole accounts together, Quicken Package expand our financial aweraness and it help us to maximize our profit by informing us the financial instruments etc. This package is popular and beneficial for personal based
finance and start-up businesses. New ventures face with cash flow problems and
they cannot determine transaction costs (like making an online payment with our
credit card and paying a commission to bank because of using our credit account
on that bank), having trouble because of lack of cash and do not have any
financial instruments or investments for short and long term basis. Fortora Fresh
Finance is my another favorite package other than Microsoft and Quicken..

We can easily manage Fortora Fresh Finance package without knowing too
much about software and even we can use this programme for our personal
finances such as balancing the checkbook keeping track of credit cards, bill
reminders, budget & more.. Generating reports to see where is our businesses’
money or our personal money going is easy with this package. Importing data
from a financial institutions, or quickly enter data by hand is also easy with this
software.

The user interface has an easy earning curve, and we will be up and
running in minutes by this programme. But the weak point of the Fortora Fresh
Finance Package (as you can see from the chart above) is weakness in
supporting system. Think about your start-up business. You have everything on
your financial statements but in a minute, financial market starting to have
trouble and you need a help! With respect to lack of supporting system, Fortora
Fresh cannot help you too much like Microsoft company. As a consumer we all
need products which produced or guaranteed by dependable brand, so that’s why
we have to choose Microsoft instead of untrained package producer.

To evaluate These software packages as a most beneficial and least beneficial we
have to consider the type of the business like start-up, growing or stable..

QuickBooks is a wonderful package for those companies that are expanding, have multiple employees, multiple locations or have slim profit margins.. QuickBooks offers a number of financial accounting packages including some that are business specific. For START-UP businesses Microsoft Office Small Business Accounting and Quicken Home and Business packages are ideal! Microsoft Office Small Business Accounting package is an easy product to learn and it does have add-ons such as payroll. Emailing invoices, printing mailing lists and other business communication functions are similar to other kind of Microsoft products.

Considering number of employees, we can eliminate number of packages. For instance if you have a single employee or home-based business (like trending style: Home Offices!), Quicken Home and Business is a ideal package. I stated three packages (Microsoft Office Small Business Accounting, QuickBooks and Quicken) and if I have to compare them I can say that Microsoft Office Small Business Accounting is good for small businesses but it’s similar to Quickbooks. Considering number of employees, entrepreneurs can make a decision about using them. The most important thing for a financial package is that: having a program which is “updatable”! As we know Microsoft always renew itself with respect to competition in the market and users of Microsoft products always have to make update on their products to have true and reliable informations.

References: Quicken web page, Microsoft Office web page, QuickBooks web page, Top 5 Personal Finance Packages
Article from http://smallbusiness.chron.com

Kredi Derecelendirme Kurumları

Kredi notu nedir?

Kredi notunu düzenli gelire sahip olan bilinçli tüketicinin, yatırımcının istikrarlı ödeme kabiliyetinin değeri olarak nitelendiriyorum.

Ekonomi jargonunda bu kavram şöyle açıklanıyor: bankaların net gelirinize, eğer varsa geçmişteki kredi ödeme durumunuza bakarak 400 ile 900 arasında değerlendirilen puanlama kredi notunuzu temsil eder.
Ülkelerin ve bireylerin kredi notları vardır.

Ekonomi haberlerinin yayımlandığı sayfalarda eğer bir ülkenin kredi notu düştüyse bu bir felaket gibi yansıtılırken, kişi bazlı kredi notlarının düşüşü kitlelerle sınırlandırıldığında yayımlanmaya değer nitelikte bulunur.

Bireysel olarak bankadan kredi çekmek istediğinizde bankacı sizin kredi ödeme geçmişinize göre değerlendirir. Kredilerinizi zamanında ödemişseniz talep ettiğiniz miktarı elde etmeniz konusunda sorun yaşamazsınız. Bu sizin kapitalist dünyada iyi bir öğrenci olduğunuzu, notlarınızın yüksek para akışınızın belirlenen tarihler çerçevesinde sorunsuz ilerlediğiniz yansıtır. Ancak ödemeleriniz aksaklıklara uğruyorsa, bir bankadan çekmiş olduğunuz krediyi ödemek için diğer bankadan kredi çekip kısır bir döngüye giriyorsanız, derslerinden başarısız olmuş karnesini saklaması gereken öğrencilerden olmuşsunuz demektir. Kredi notunuz yerle bir olmuştur..

Kredi notunu kimler neye göre verir?

Ülkelerin kredi notları ise Uluslararası Para Fonu, Merkez Bankası gibi kurumlardan alınan borçların zamanında ve belirlenen miktarda geri ödenmesine bağlı olarak harf notu bazında derecelendiriliyor. Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, Fitch, A.M. Best, Baycorp Advantage, Egan-Jones, Muros, Levin&Goldstein gibi kredi derecelendirme kurumlarının ülkeleri harf notu bazındadeğerlendirmesi, gelişmişlik düzeyi, yatırım yapılabilir ülke olma potansiyeli gibi konularda kişi ve kurumlara fikir verirken iktisadi istikrarlılığın da aynası oluyor.


Kredi notunun arttırılırmasının etkileri nelerdir?

Kredi derecelendirilmesi harf bazında ülkelerin yatırım yapılabilir, riskli, spekülatif olma durumlarıyla ilgili fikir veriyor.

Örneğin:

AAA harf notuna sahip bir ülke %100 güvenilirken, AA+ harf notuna sahip bir ülke güvenilir olarak değerlendiriliyor.
B+: spekülatif iken CCC+: risk göstergesi oluyor.


Kredi notu artırılan ülkeler yatırımcıların ilgisini çekerken uluslararası çalışan şirketlerin üretim, tüketim sahası haline gelebiliyor. Gerçekleşen tüketim ülke nüfusuna daha fazla harcama yaptırıken, globalleşmenin etkilerinden biri olan birden fazla ürüne erişebilme olanağı da sağlıyor.

Bireysel kredi notları ile ülkelerin kredi notları arasında doğru orantı olduğunu düşünüyorum. Ülke nüfusunun büyük bir bölümü kredi ihtiyacı duyduğunda bankadan aldığı borçları ne kadar istikrarlı ödeyebiliyorsa ülkelerin de kredi çekme ihtiyacı ve bunu geri ödeyebilme kabiliyeti o kadar istikrarlı olabiliyor..

Seyahat Ederken Para Taşımak

Seyahat ederken yaşanan zorulukların başında, eğer para birimi sizinkinden farklı olan bir ülkeyi ziyaret ediyorsanız, fazla ekonomik kayıba uğramadan, paranızı güvenli bir şekilde harcamak gelir. American Express isimli bankanın başkanı, J.C.Fargo 1892 yılında gerçekleştirdiği avrupa seyahati sırasında elinmde bulunan akreditifleri nakde çevirmekte büyük zoruluklar yaşamıştı. J.C.Fargo yaşamış olduğu bu probleme çözüm üretmeye çalışırken günümüze kadar uzanan bir yolculuğun kaptanı oldu. American Express seyahat ederken güvenlik, nakit sıkıntısı yaşanamaması için “seyahat çeklerini” ortaya çıkardı. Söz konusu çeklerin dünya çapında geçerli olduğu mağazalarda alışveriş yapaliecek olan American express kullanıcıları, bankaya olan talebin artmasına önderlik yaptılar.

Dünya çapında geçerlilik kazanan çekleri satın alabilmek için, American Express kullanıcıları belirli bir nakit karşılığında çeklerini satın alıyorlar, bu çekleri anlaşmalı olan dükkan ve markalarda kullanarak seyahatleri süresince bu girişimcilik örneğine katkıda bulunuyorlardı.

Söz konusu girişimin American Express’e negatif etkileri asla olmadı. Bunun sebebi başta maddi kaygıların garanti altına alınmasıydı. Çeklere sahip olmak isteyen kimse, öncelikle nakit olarak ödemeyi gerçekleştiriyor ardından çekleri elde ediyordu. Bu durumda American Express “acaba müşterimden paramı geri alabilecek miyim?” gibi bir soru üstüne kafa yormuyor, nakit akışını düzenli tutuyor, risksiz satışlar yapıyordu.

American Express’e güvenen işletme sahipleri de müşterilerinin çeklerini kabul etmekte sorun çıkarmazken, turistlerden daha fazla gelir elde ediyorlardı.

Bu girişimin sonunda “Visa” paranın uluslararası platformlarda seyhaat etmesine değişik bir boyut kazandırmaya devam ederken westren union gibi oluşumlar günümüze kadar gelerek “tüketmeyi” daha kolay bir hale getirmeye yardımcı oldu..

Girişimcilik-Entrepreneurship

Sanırım yaptığım kısa araştırmalar içerisinde zevkle ve ilgiyle çalıştığım konulardan biriydi bu. Girişimcilik ve Türkiye!

Açık konuşmak gerekirse, “girişimcilik” başlığı altında ve “girişimci” sıfatıyla Türkiye’de yapılan çalışmaların büyük bir bölümünün “sabun köpüğü” niteliğinde olduğu düşünüyorum. Hazırlamam gereken girişimciliğin ülkenize, ülkenizin ekonomisine etkisi konulu araştırma ödevim ile ilgili kaynak ararken Yeditepe Üniversitesi’nde bu konuda bir araştırma yapmış olan akademisyenlerden birinin raporuna ulaştım. Bu raporu okuduktan sonra herşeyin bize lanse edildiği gibi “reel” olmadığını anladım.

Herkes girişimci olduğunu iddia ederken bu durumun “gelişmekte olan ülkelerde” oldukça farklı bir boyutta olduğunu düşünüyorum. Yani eğer gelişmekte olan bir ülkede yaşıyorsanız ve parlak bir fikriniz varsa bu fikri hayata geçirdiğiniz zaman sermayenizi nasıl elde ettiğiniz, fikrinizin ne gibi oluşumlardan “esinlenerek” ortaya çıktığı çok önemli. Bu konuda kadınların da “girişimci” sıfatını taşıyıp taşımadığı da söz konusu ülkenin girişimcilik gündemine ve geçmişine farklı bir boyut kazandırıyor.

Araştırmamın içeriğine ingilizce olarak aşağıdan ulaşabilirsiniz.

>What impact does entrepreneurship have on your local, state (or province), and national economies? Use data to back up your arguments.


As a Turkish citizen, I know that Turkey has fast developing process. Because of many entrepreneurship activities, developing process is getting stronger and one of the key findings is that the early-stage entrepreneurial activities in Turkey is much lower than those that take place in other developing countries, whereas, the number of established business entrepreneurs are relatively higher in Turkey. Like many middle east countires, female participation in work force in Turkey is really low. But this participation ratios are getting higher with respect to entrepreneurship activities. I will give datas like TEA index, SME index, NEA index, NBO index, NE & OE index to reflect the impact of entrepreneurship activities to Turkey, as an example of developing country.

Innovative/creative ideas, the power of R&D, government policies, financial supports, education, rapid market changes, entrepreneurship capacity, entry barriers to the industry are the basic topics for being a leader about raising high level of entrepreneurships. These topics are getting stronger in Turkey but before giving information about this topics I will give an example about Turkish people’s understanding about entrepreneurship. With a random sampling method called CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview), researchers make an observation in 16,000 individuals. Only 2416 individuals responded and considered to be a representative sample size. Participants ranged in age from 18-64, and lived in 19 cities throughtout Turkey. Thus, a standard questionnaire was asked to 2416 individuals and among those 418 respoondents fit the definition of an entrepreneur.
Total Entrepreneurial Activity Turkey Developing Countries
TEA index 6.07 14.64
NEA index 2.2 7.70
NBO index 4.01 7.68
EBO index 11.5 9.93
Ratio of TEA index to EBO index 0.53 0.67
NE index 1.79 4.39
OE index 3.7 9.97

TEA index: early stage entrepreneursh,p activities index, NEA index: Nascent entrepreneurial activities index, NBO index: New business owners index, EBO index: established business owners index, OE index: Opportunity entrepreneurs index, NE index: Necessity entrepreneurs
According to table as we can determine that, Turkey’s TEA, NEA, NBO indexes are lower than developing countries’. But Turkey’s EBO index is higher than others. As developing countries I mean India, Jamaica, Indonesia, Philippines, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, Thailand, Mexico, Uruguay, Malaysia, South Africa and Argentina. The average EBO index of Turkey (11.5%) is higher than that of the developing countries (9.93%). But why Turkey’s EBO index is higher than others? One reason is that Turkish government attention and support have been always more favourable to large firms than small firms. Effectiveness of a country’s economy can be determine by EBO index which actually shows enterpreneurial dynamism in the economy. So, Turkey has an effective economy.

Entrepreneurship has two types: opportunity entrepreneurs and necessity entrepreneurs. Opportunity entrepreneurs are taking advantage of a business opportunity but necessity entreprenurs are people who have no better options for work. According to average of the OE index Turkey (3.7 %) is 13th out of 14 developing countries. The average NE index is 1.8% that places Turkey 12th among developing countries. The ratio of OE to NE is lower than the average of the developing countries, implying that relatively more Turkish entrepreneurs have taken the entrepreneurial route out of necessity.
Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions Turkey Developing Countries
Financial support 1.76 2.40
Government regulation policy 1.89 2.02
R&D transfer 2.14 2.16
Education & Training 2.16 1.92
Fast market changes 3.4 2.86
Population composition 2.9 3.21
National culture 2.78 2.80
High growth firms 2.53 2.78
Intellectual property rights 2.4 2.47

For starting a business, entrepreneurs or ordinary people have to pass many regulations and try to arrange their cashflows, find an financial support or hire educated people to grow the firm fastly. As you can see from the table in many developing countries has high level of government support and checking system. Turkey’s economy is effecting from this regulaitons and policies positively. Entrepreneurs are able to set up a business easily.
Government’s basic problem is having a budget deficit. Usually number of imported goods exceeds exports and this create a deficit in countries budget. The majority of the new firms have no exports but 10% already have very significant exports with more than 75% of their customers in export markets. Entrepreneurs in Turkey are more export oriented than entrepreneurs in other developing countries. This means that high levels of export will reduce the gap between imports. Government’s budget deficit will be always less and GDP (gross domestic product) will be on its best level.

Entrepreneurs don’t have to be men. Women are also can be entrepreneur and this will expand country’s economy fastly. Turkey is developing Middle East Country and women did not have any chance to join the work force easily. But in India, Prof. Mohammed Yunus made a loan for 45 poor women to create their business. This manner established Grameen Mikro credit system. Starting from India, in Turkey there were women got benefit from this credit system and start many businesses as “an woman entrepreneur”! They start to work instead of being non-productive house wifes and contribute the national economy. Actually in this case, Mr. Mohammed Yunus made an entrepreneurial manner and create benefical cycle to make countries economy better. After all Turkey gets benefits of this enterprise.

References
• Autio, E., 2005, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2005 Report on High-Expectation Entrepreneurship, London Business School and Babson College (from web)
• Microcredit/ http://www.microcreditsummit.org/
• Assistant Professor Esra Karadeniz, Department of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yeditepe University Entrepreneurship report
• Long,W., 1983 “The meaning of entrepreneurship” American Journal of Small Business (from web)